Barnea candida (Linnæus, 1758)
Norway & western Baltic to Mauritania, Mediterranean, Black Sea. Lower intertidal to 50m deep, in soft stones and sunken pieces of wood. Yellow periostracum.
Original taxon: Pholas candidus.
In wood, Calambrone beach, Livorno, Toscana, W. Italy. 38mm.
Synonyms: costulata, cylindrica, papyracea, spinosa.
In muddy lagoon, Marina Romea, Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, NE. Italy. 42mm.
« Testa valvis ambatus, lineolis tenuissimis, concentricis, antice spinosis sculpta; epidermide testacea. » – Barnea spinosa in A. Risso: Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale… vol. IV, Paris 1826.

The species shows little variations in shape and sculpture.
5m deep, in fuller’s earth, Bozcaada island, Çanakkale, Western Marmara province, NW. Turkey. 32mm.
A specimen in T. Pennant: British Conchology vol. 4 plate XLII, London 1812, via BHL.
A specimen in J. G. Jeffreys: British Conchology vol. V plate LII, London 1869, via BHL.

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