Bolma rugosa (Linnæus, 1767)
Azores, Madeira and lusitanian seamounts to Canarias, Cantabrian Sea (Petit de La Saussaye, 1869), Portugal, Mediterranean. The species lives on rocky or silty bottoms, around brown algae such as Cladostephus spongiosus, in Posidonia meadows and also in coralligen, from 3m to 100m deep (DORIS). Grazer and deposit feeder. Original taxon: Turbo rugosus. Synonym: Trochus solaris.

4m deep, on big table rock covered with algae, La Madrague des Lecques, Provence, S. France. 60mm.
Renecros Beach, outer side of breakwater, on rocks in splash zone, Bandol, Provence. 33mm.
A specimen pictured at 40m deep, west of Santa Marinella, south of Civitavecchia, Lazio, W. Italy. Original picture provided by L. Tringali (CC BY-NC 4.0) via inaturalist.org. The deeper the animal lives, the less encrusted its shell is.
40-50m deep, off Castel Vieil, west of Cassis, Provence. 47mm.
This specimen came with no encrustations.
Same golden variant, pictured in L. C. Kiener: Spécies général et iconographie des coquilles vivantes vol. IV, Turbo pl.15.
The Fausse raboteuse, plate IX fig.O, in A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville: La conchyliologie… tome III, via BHL.
Green specimens found at 2m deep, on granitic rocks, feeding on algae, on the southern side of Punta di Spanu, Lumio, Calvi, W. Corsica. 52-54mm.
Young specimen collected at 6m deep, on rock, in a sheltered area protected by reefs, west of the small harbour of Ferma, east of Ierapetra, SE. Crete. 26mm.
2-3m deep, on large rocks on southern shore of Elounda peninsula, 1km east of Elounda channel, Kolpos Mirabellou, N. Crete. 32-38mm.
Same spot. Cleaned specimen. 35mm.
Extreme juvenile specimens found in grit at 33m deep, Secche di Tor Paterno, off Torvajanica, Roma, Lazio. 1,5-3,5mm.
An other juvenile, from 50m deep, detritic bottom with coral debris, Scilla, Calabria, Messina Strait, SW. Italy. 3mm.
7-8m deep, on rocks, Červar, Istarska Zupanija, NW. Croatia. 42mm.
Turbo rugosus in J. G. Hidalgo: Moluscos marinos de España, Portugal y las Baleares, Madrid 1870.

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